Wood pellets are widely used type of pellets used worldwide. Especially in European markets. Wood pellets are compressed biofuel generally produced of sawdust. Wood pellets are a modern form of heating fuel which has more potential to reduce CO2 emissions. Wood pellets are usually available in 6-10mm in diameter. They can be 15mm to 30mm in length and are in cylindrical in shape. The moisture in Wood pellets is generally less than 10% that allows them to be burned with very high combustion efficiency.
Woodchips, wooden wastes,logs (shaving) is milled onto fine sawdust and then fed into a pelletizing machine (granulator) where it is compressed under immense pressure and extruded through a die. This process is accompanied by lignin melting, contained in the biomass, which serves as a binding material forming the pellets when they dry. The glaze observed on the exterior of the pellets is also the result of lignin melting. The process of forming pellets is called extrusion. When pelleting sawdust raises its temperature to 90oC. When producing wood pellets no additives are used. After cooling the pellets are either bagged or loaded into container lorries for bulk distribution.
Wood pellets as biomass are used for numerous applications from residential heating to burning in high efficiency commercial stoves, industrial furnaces,fireplaces, and central heating systems. There is very little ash from burning good quality wood pellets. Wood pellets from Ukrain are in high demand in many parts of the world.
In 2015 Poland was the biggest importer of Ukrainian wood pellets with 49,828 tonnes, Italy took at second place with 27,570 tonnes and the Czech Republic which imported 15,310 tonnes of Ukrainian wood pellets went at third place.In first quarter of current year Poland was against top with having purchased 11,657 tonnes of Ukrainian wood pellets.Italy and Czech Republic were at second and third positions again with 4,422 tonnes and 3604 tonnes respectively.